The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

New Meeting Places

Any changes that create new intersections between microbes and people pave the way for disease-causing agents to enter our species. One such change that has put us at risk is the global human population explosion—from about 1.6 billion people in 1900 to nearly 7 billion today. Humans have cleared forests for agriculture and suburbanization, leading to closer contact with environments that may harbor novel (or newly introduced) pathogens. Through much of the world’s developing tropical regions, the massive expansion of roads and human settlements has also created transition zones filled with opportunities for contact with potential disease-causing agents.
International trade and travel are associated with the emergence of such infectious agents as the SARS coronavirus and West Nile virus.
Human travel and commerce have brought other risks. Almost 2 million passengers, each a potential carrier of infection, travel daily by aircraft to international destinations. International commerce, especially in foodstuffs, adds to the global traffic of disease-causing microbes. Because the transit times of people and goods are often shorter than the incubation periods of infection, carriers of disease can arrive at their destination before the infection they harbor is detectable. International trade and travel are associated with the emergence of such infectious agents as the SARS coronavirus and West Nile virus.
 
Changes in human demographics and behavior are linked with the emergence of infections such as AIDS and hepatitis C, through sexual activity and intravenous drug use. More broad-scale changes that raise the risk of infectious disease include the breakdown of public health systems, poverty, war, and famine.

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Disease Watchlist

What do you know about infectious disease?

Which are examples of ways that pathogens (disease-causing microbes) can spread?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

  • Correct!

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

Infectious Disease Defined

Gene

A specific sequence of nucleotides in either DNA or RNA that serves a functional unit of inheritance in a living organism, controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits.

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National Academies Press

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