The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

A young boy drinks from a well pump at a school in Harare, Zimbabwe, during a day of awareness activities for HIV and AIDS hosted by an international aid agency.

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Public Health in Developing Nations

 
The gap in life expectancy between the richest and poorest countries now exceeds 40 years—in large measure owing to the toll of infectious diseases. Safe water supplies, sewage treatment and disposal, improved food safety, and vaccination programs are urgently needed in developing nations. A major barrier to achieving these improvements is the underlying weakness of public health systems in resource-poor countries, including a shortage of health care workers, which hinders efforts to immunize, treat, and monitor the status of patients. Poor nations also lack disease surveillance programs and up-to-date laboratories, which are essential to the mission of finding, diagnosing, and containing infectious diseases.
The gap in life expectancy between the richest and poorest countries now exceeds 40 years—in large measure owing to the toll of infectious diseases.
Of further concern is the fact that life-saving vaccines and medications are not distributed equitably around the world. More than half of those suffering from HIV/AIDS who need drug treatment are not receiving it. Only 2 percent of people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis receive the right medications. And while children in wealthy countries are routinely immunized with vaccines that protect against childhood pneumonia and diarrhea, children in poor countries are not; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.
 
Many factors influence whether poor nations can obtain affordable drugs of good quality. Most drug research and development is not geared toward the needs of people in poor countries because they are not a big market. As a result, a large percentage of the money spent worldwide on health care research is dedicated to problems affecting a small percentage of the world’s population. Social and political challenges to the distribution of medicines are factors as well. Efforts are being made by foundations, pharmaceutical companies, and other organizations to overcome these challenges by providing funding, research, and donations of medications. The tragedy of global infectious disease is not only that so many lives are lost or damaged, it’s that so many of these infections could be prevented or treated effectively with low-cost drugs.

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Disease Watchlist

What do you know about infectious disease?

True or False: Most infectious diseases are not impacted by changes in the environment.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Most infectious diseases are impacted by changes in the environment. Malaria, dengue, and viral encephalitis infections, for example, are highly sensitive to environmental changes.

  • Correct!

    Most infectious diseases are impacted by changes in the environment. Malaria, dengue, and viral encephalitis infections, for example, are highly sensitive to environmental changes.

Infectious Disease Defined

Cancer

A class of diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade healthy tissues in various parts of the body.

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