The National Academies

The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs most often caused by bacteria or viruses present in the environment. Pneumonia can range in seriousness, from mild to life-threatening. Pneumonia is more worrisome in adults ages 65 and older and individuals with compromised immune systems. In addition, the strains of pneumonia acquired in health care settings can be virulent. The bacteria present in these strains tend to become resistant to standard antibiotics quickly, resulting in types of pneumonia that are more difficult to treat.

Symptoms
Typical symptoms of pneumonia include cough, shortness of breath, lower than normal body temperature (in older people), sweating, shaking and the chills, chest pain, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. Because pneumonia is a serious illness, it is important to go to the doctor if the cough persists, especially if it is accompanied by shortness of breath and the chills. Children under the age of 2 and older adults should contact their doctors immediately, as should those with other medical conditions.

Treatment
Before pneumonia can be treated, it is important to diagnose the organism that is causing it. If it is a bacterial infection, identifying which bacteria are the culprit will allow doctors to prescribe the appropriate antibiotic. If the illness is caused by a virus, antiviral medication can be used. Aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen are helpful for reducing the fever, and cough medicine provides some relief from the cough that often accompanies pneumonia. For older adults who are having trouble breathing, admission to the hospital may be warranted.

Prevention
Because pneumonia may result from a bout of seasonal flu, avoiding that illness by getting the seasonal flu vaccine is a clear preventive measure. Adults ages 65 and older should be vaccinated for Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common bacteria associated with the disease. Eating properly, following basic sanitation guidelines—such as washing your hands frequently, getting enough sleep, exercising, and not smoking—also goes a long way toward keeping people healthy.

Sources:
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pneumonia/home/ovc-20204676
http://www.cdc.gov/Features/Pneumonia

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What do you know about infectious disease?

Public health officials can identify the outbreak of disease by monitoring certain patterns of behavior through syndromic surveillance. Which of the following is one of the signs used to identify a disease outbreak using this system?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Correct!

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

Infectious Disease Defined

Yeast

A broad group of microscopic fungi that includes harmless forms of yeast used in baking and alcoholic fermentation as well as pathogenic species that can cause disease. 

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