The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Salmonellosis

Salmonella is the name of the bacteria that can cause the infection salmonellosis. Every year, approximately 40,000 cases of salmonellosis are reported in the United States. Because many milder cases are not diagnosed or reported, the actual number of infections may be 30 or more times greater. Salmonella live in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals, including birds. The bacteria are usually transmitted to humans by eating foods contaminated with animal feces. Contaminated foods are often of animal origin, such as beef, poultry, milk, or eggs, but any food, including vegetables, may become contaminated. Because contaminated foods usually look and smell normal, it is important to be aware of public health announcements about outbreaks. Salmonella may also be found in the feces of some pets, especially those with diarrhea. People can become infected if they do not wash their hands after contact with pets or pet feces.

Symptoms
Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. Because many different kinds of illnesses can cause these symptoms, diagnosis depends on laboratory tests that can identify Salmonella in the stool of an infected person.

Treatment
People usually recover from salmonellosis in 5 to 7 days and often do not require treatment other than oral fluids. Persons with severe diarrhea may require rehydration with intravenous fluids. Antibiotics are not usually necessary unless the infection spreads from the intestines. Some Salmonella bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics, largely as a result of the use of antibiotics to promote the growth of cattle and other animals raised for food.

Prevention
Because foods of animal origin may be contaminated with Salmonella, people should cook eggs, poultry, and meat thoroughly. Cross contamination of foods can be prevented by keeping uncooked meats separate from produce, cooked foods, and ready-to-eat foods. Although Salmonella can be found in the intestines and feces of all animals, the bacteria are most likely to be found in the living environment and on the bodies of reptiles and birds. For this reason, people should wash their hands immediately after handling birds and reptiles.

Source:
http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/index.html

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What do you know about infectious disease?

About how often is someone in the world newly infected with tuberculosis (TB)?

  • Correct!

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

Infectious Disease Defined

El NiƱo-Southern Oscillation Cycle (ENSO)
An irregular event that disrupts regional and global weather patterns when unusually warm surface water flows across the Pacific Ocean toward and along the coast of South America, preventing the upwelling of nutrient-rich, cold deepwater.

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