The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that lives in human gastric mucosa. The bacteria produce an enzyme that neutralizes the stomach’s digestive acids, allowing the bacteria to live in harsh, acidic conditions. About half of the human population has an H. pylori infection, making it one of the world’s most common bacterial infections. The exact origins and transmission of H. pylori are unknown but it is most likely transmitted through contact with infected saliva or feces. It may also be spread through contaminated food or water. Most often the infection is acquired during childhood.

Symptoms
Most H. pylori infections do not produce symptoms. However, because the bacteria affect the gastrointestinal tract and digestive system, some infections can lead to abdominal pains, vomiting, nausea, bloating, and loss of appetite. H. pylori infection is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease, and it also increases the risk of gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining) and duodenal ulcers. Symptoms of these diseases are similar to those already mentioned and also can include bloody or black vomit and stools.

Treatment
Treatment of H. pylori usually involves a combination of antibiotics over a period of 10 to 14 days. Sometimes supplemental medicines that reduce stomach acids are used to reduce symptoms and increase the effectiveness of antibiotics.

Prevention
The mode of H. pylori transmission is unknown; therefore, no specific and proven ways of preventing infection can be recommended. No vaccine is available and there are no recommended drugs for preventing infection. It is advised that you follow the normal precautions for preventing many infectious diseases—washing your hands with soap frequently throughout the day, drinking clean water, and eating food that has been properly prepared and cooked.

Sources:
http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2010/chapter-5/helicobacter-pylori.aspx
http://www.who.int/immunization/topics/helicobacter_pylori/en/
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/h-pylori/DS00958

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What do you know about infectious disease?

About how often is someone in the world newly infected with tuberculosis (TB)?

  • Correct!

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

Infectious Disease Defined

Staph Infection

An infection caused by any one of several harmful species or subspecies of bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus.

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