The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What do you know about infectious disease?

What fraction of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    About one quarter of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease. More than two-thirds of the deaths in children under the age of five are caused by infectious disease.

  • Correct!

    About one quarter of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease. More than two-thirds of the deaths in children under the age of five are caused by infectious disease.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    About one quarter of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease. More than two-thirds of the deaths in children under the age of five are caused by infectious disease.

Each year, how many Americans become infected by what they eat?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Each year about 76 million Americans—or one in four—become infected by what they eat. Approximately 325,000 are hospitalized. More than 5,000 (14 a day) die.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Each year about 76 million Americans—or one in four—become infected by what they eat. Approximately 325,000 are hospitalized. More than 5,000 (14 a day) die.

  • Correct!

    Each year about 76 million Americans—or one in four—become infected by what they eat. Approximately 325,000 are hospitalized. More than 5,000 (14 a day) die.

In 2008, about how many people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In 2008, more than 33 million people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). In that same year, an estimated 2 million people died from AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the final stage of HIV infection.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In 2008, more than 33 million people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). In that same year, an estimated 2 million people died from AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the final stage of HIV infection.

  • Correct!

    In 2008, more than 33 million people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). In that same year, an estimated 2 million people died from AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the final stage of HIV infection.

Which of the following global events does NOT have an impact on the spread of infectious disease:

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The expanded use of cell phones does not have an impact on the spread of infectious disease. Climate change, ecosystem disturbances, war, poverty, migration, and global trade all contribute to the spread of infectious disease.

  • Correct!

    The expanded use of cell phones does not have an impact on the spread of infectious disease. Climate change, ecosystem disturbances, war, poverty, migration, and global trade all contribute to the spread of infectious disease.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The expanded use of cell phones does not have an impact on the spread of infectious disease. Climate change, ecosystem disturbances, war, poverty, migration, and global trade all contribute to the spread of infectious disease.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The expanded use of cell phones does not have an impact on the spread of infectious disease. Climate change, ecosystem disturbances, war, poverty, migration, and global trade all contribute to the spread of infectious disease.

If you have strep throat, which of the following forms of medication can be used to effectively treat the infection?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Because strep throat is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes, it is treatable with antibiotics but not antivirals. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent strep throat.

  • Correct!

    Because strep throat is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes, it is treatable with antibiotics but not antivirals. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent strep throat.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Because strep throat is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes, it is treatable with antibiotics but not antivirals. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent strep throat.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Because strep throat is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes, it is treatable with antibiotics but not antivirals. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent strep throat.

Which of the following is an effective way to protect yourself against infectious disease?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All of the above can help prevent infectious disease. Other behaviors, such as exercising caution around wild and unfamiliar domestic animals, avoiding insect bites, practicing safe sex, and being vigilant about disease threats while traveling abroad, can also reduce the risk of infection.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All of the above can help prevent infectious disease. Other behaviors, such as exercising caution around wild and unfamiliar domestic animals, avoiding insect bites, practicing safe sex, and being vigilant about disease threats while traveling abroad, can also reduce the risk of infection.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All of the above can help prevent infectious disease. Other behaviors, such as exercising caution around wild and unfamiliar domestic animals, avoiding insect bites, practicing safe sex, and being vigilant about disease threats while traveling abroad, can also reduce the risk of infection.

  • Correct!

    All of the above can help prevent infectious disease. Other behaviors, such as exercising caution around wild and unfamiliar domestic animals, avoiding insect bites, practicing safe sex, and being vigilant about disease threats while traveling abroad, can also reduce the risk of infection.

About how often is someone in the world newly infected with tuberculosis (TB)?

  • Correct!

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

True or False: If you have a cold or the flu, taking antibiotics will help treat the infection.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Antibiotics only work on bacterial infections, not viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. In fact, inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. 

  • Correct!

    Antibiotics only work on bacterial infections, not viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. In fact, inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. 

True or False: Not all microbes are harmful to humans.

  • Correct!

    Not all microbes are harmful to humans. In fact, many of them protect us, helping our bodies function properly and competing with harmful organisms in an eternal contest for habitable space in or on our bodies. Although the microorganisms that cause disease often receive more attention, most microorganisms do not cause illness.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Not all microbes are harmful to humans. In fact, many of them protect us, helping our bodies function properly and competing with harmful organisms in an eternal contest for habitable space in or on our bodies. Although the microorganisms that cause disease often receive more attention, most microorganisms do not cause illness.

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Disease Watchlist

Infectious Disease Defined

Nerve Toxin

A toxin that acts specifically on the nervous system.

View our full glossary