The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Botulism

Botulism is caused by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, which can contaminate people in several different ways. The bacteria can enter the body through open sores, contact with soil and untreated water, and by eating canned food that has been improperly preserved. These bacteria produce spores containing a toxin that can cause severe poisoning when eaten. Foods most commonly infected include home-canned vegetables, cured pork and ham, smoked or raw fish, and honey or corn syrup. Infants also can contract botulism, often by eating honey.

Symptoms
Symptoms occur between 8 and 36 hours after eating the contaminated food and include abdominal cramps; difficulty breathing, which could lead to respiratory failure; difficulty swallowing and speaking; double vision; dry mouth; nausea and vomiting; and weakness, with paralysis possible. Symptoms in infants include constipation, poor feeding and weak sucking, difficulty breathing, and overall weakness, with loss of muscle tone.

Physicians can diagnose a case of botulism through a physical exam, in which reflexes and the gag reflex are either diminished or absent, eyelids are drooping, the bowel is paralyzed, and fluid is being retained. A blood test and stool culture can be done to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment
An antitoxin for the bacteria is available, and it should be administered immediately after diagnosis. Depending on the severity of the case, the individual may have to be admitted to the hospital. For breathing difficulties, a breathing machine may be needed. A feeding tube can be used if the patient is having trouble swallowing. Prompt treatment is key to a full recovery.

Prevention
If cans are bulging, throw them away immediately. Also, any preserved foods that have an odor also should be discarded. To avoid botulism in infants, never feed them honey. When canning foods at home, sterilize the cans at 250°F (121°C) for 30 minutes to prevent contamination.

Source:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001624/

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What do you know about infectious disease?

Public health officials can identify the outbreak of disease by monitoring certain patterns of behavior through syndromic surveillance. Which of the following is one of the signs used to identify a disease outbreak using this system?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Correct!

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

Infectious Disease Defined

Beta-lactam Antibiotics

One of several families of antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, containing a molecular ring-shaped structure made up of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom.

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