The National Academies

The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Botulism

Botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, which can contaminate people in several different ways. The bacteria can be spread through open sores, via contact with soil and untreated water, and by eating canned food that has been improperly preserved. These bacteria produce spores containing a toxin that can cause severe poisoning when eaten. Foods most commonly infected include home-canned vegetables; low-acid preserved vegetables such as green beans, spinach, and mushrooms; cured pork and ham; smoked or raw fish; and honey or corn syrup. Infants also can contract botulism, often by eating honey.

 

Symptoms

Symptoms occur between 12 and 36 hours after eating the contaminated food and include abdominal cramps; difficulty breathing, which could lead to respiratory failure; difficulty swallowing and speaking; double vision; dry mouth; nausea and vomiting; and weakness, with paralysis possible. Symptoms in infants include constipation, poor feeding and weak sucking, difficulty breathing, and overall weakness, with loss of muscle tone.

 

Physicians can diagnose a case of botulism through a physical exam in which reflexes, including the gag reflex, are either diminished or absent; eyelids are drooping; the bowel is paralyzed; and fluid is being retained. A blood test and stool culture can be done to confirm the diagnosis.

 

Treatment

An antitoxin for the bacteria is available, and it should be administered immediately after diagnosis. Depending on the severity of the case, the individual may have to be admitted to the hospital. For breathing difficulties, a breathing machine may be needed. A feeding tube can be used if the patient is having trouble swallowing. Prompt treatment is the key to a full recovery.

 

Prevention

If cans are bulging, throw them away immediately. Any preserved food that has an odor should also be discarded. To avoid botulism in infants, never feed them honey. When canning foods at home, sterilize the cans at 250°F (121°C) for 20 to 100 minutes to prevent contamination.

Sources:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs270/en/
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/botulism/basics/symptoms/con-20025875
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/botulism/basics/prevention/con-20025875

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What do you know about infectious disease?

The 1918 influenza pandemic (the so-called “Spanish” flu) is estimated to have killed how many people worldwide?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The 1918 influenza pandemic is estimated to have killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide. Many of those deaths were due to the effects of pneumococcal pneumonia, a secondary complication of flu for which no antibiotics existed in 1918.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The 1918 influenza pandemic is estimated to have killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide. Many of those deaths were due to the effects of pneumococcal pneumonia, a secondary complication of flu for which no antibiotics existed in 1918.

  • Correct!

    The 1918 influenza pandemic is estimated to have killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide. Many of those deaths were due to the effects of pneumococcal pneumonia, a secondary complication of flu for which no antibiotics existed in 1918.

Infectious Disease Defined

Adaptive Mutation

A mechanism through which certain cells can increase the rate in which genetic mutations occur, often in response to stress. This mechanism may help explain how bacteria develop resistance to certain antibiotics.

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