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The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Dysentery

Dysentery is the inflammation of the colon characterized by frequent, watery stools, often tinged with blood and mucus. Dysentery is usually caused by one of two different organisms—Shigella bacteria or an amoeba, Entamoeba histolytica. Bacillary dysentery is more common in the developed world, while amoebic dysentery more frequently occurs in tropical areas with poor sanitary conditions. Inadequate hygiene is the most common cause of dysentery, but it can also be spread by tainted food, contaminated water, and exposure to human feces, for example, by changing diapers.

Symptoms
Symptoms of bacillary dysentery, a milder form of the disease, usually appear between 1 and 3 days after an individual is infected. Bacillary dysentery typically begins with a stomachache, followed by diarrhea and fever. Children younger than 2 years old may develop severe infections and should be monitored carefully.

Amoebic dysentery is more serious and presents with a wider range of symptoms that develop at least 2 to 4 weeks after exposure. Symptoms include fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting; watery diarrhea with mucus and blood; painful bowel movements; fatigue; and intermittent constipation. If untreated, the amoeba can break through the intestinal wall, spread into the bloodstream, and infect other organs, although this is very rare.

Treatment
Because vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dehydration, individuals with dysentery must drink plenty of fluids. If an analysis of a stool sample shows that bacteria are the cause, medication may not be prescribed unless symptoms are severe. In mild cases, symptoms typically dissipate on their own within a week. For amoebic dysentery, patients will likely be given a 10-day course of one or more antimicrobial medications. 

Prevention
Hygiene practices are the best defense against dysentery. Washing hands after using the bathroom and before preparing food is essential. If traveling to the tropics—where dysentery is common—drink bottled water, even when brushing your teeth, and avoid ice cubes, especially if you do not know what water was used to make them. Only eat food that has been cooked thoroughly.

Sources:
http://www.who.int/topics/dysentery/en/
https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/amebiasis/general-info.html
http://www.cdc.gov/shigella/general-information.html
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/171193.php

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What do you know about infectious disease?

Public health officials can identify the outbreak of disease by monitoring certain patterns of behavior through syndromic surveillance. Which of the following is one of the signs used to identify a disease outbreak using this system?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

  • Correct!

    In syndromic surveillance, all of the above are used in addition to other patterns that suggest an outbreak. Despite the emergence of this innovative surveillance method, most surveillance still depends on tracking reported infections. 

Infectious Disease Defined

Adaptive Mutation

A mechanism through which certain cells can increase the rate in which genetic mutations occur, often in response to stress. This mechanism may help explain how bacteria develop resistance to certain antibiotics.

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