The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome


Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare but deadly disease that was first recognized in 1993 and has since been identified throughout the United States. Certain species of rodents are the only known animal carriers, including deer mice in the Southwest, cotton rats and rice rats in the southeastern states, and the white-footed mouse in the Northeast.
 
Rodents shed the virus in their urine, droppings, and saliva. The virus is mainly transmitted to people when they breathe in air contaminated with the virus. Researchers also suspect people can become sick if they eat food contaminated by urine, droppings, or saliva from an infected rodent. The disease cannot be transmitted from person to person.

Symptoms
Early symptoms include fatigue, fever, and muscle aches, especially in the large muscle groups—thighs, hips, back, and sometimes shoulders. These symptoms are universal. There may also be headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal problems, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. About half of all HPS patients experience these symptoms. Four to 10 days after the initial phase of illness, the late symptoms of HPS appear. These include coughing and shortness of breath, with the sensation of, as one survivor put it, a “tight band around my chest and a pillow over my face” as the lungs fill with fluid.

Treatment
There is no specific treatment, cure, or vaccine for hantavirus infection. However, if infected individuals are recognized early and receive medical care in an intensive care unit, then their outcomes may be better. In intensive care, patients are intubated and given oxygen therapy to help them through the period of severe respiratory distress.

Prevention
Disinfecting rodent-infested areas is important in preventing transmission of the virus. Transmission can occur any place that is currently or was previously infested with infected rodents. This includes barns, sheds, or other outbuildings, warehouses, and summer cottages that have been closed up for the season. The most sensible way to avoid contact with infected rodents is to prevent rodents from infesting the places where you live and work and to follow safety precautions if you enter a rodent-infested area. It is important to avoid actions that raise dust, such as sweeping or vacuuming. Infection occurs when you breathe in virus particles.

Source:
http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/index.html

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What do you know about infectious disease?

True or False: Washing your hands with soaps that have residue-producing antibacterial products, such as those containing the chemical triclosan, have been proven to confer health benefits.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Washing with regular soap is considered the most important way to prevent disease transmission. Routine consumer use of residue-producing antibacterial products has no added benefit and may actually contribute to antibiotic resistance.

  • Correct!

    Washing with regular soap is considered the most important way to prevent disease transmission. Routine consumer use of residue-producing antibacterial products has no added benefit and may actually contribute to antibiotic resistance.

Infectious Disease Defined

DNA

Short for deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is any of the nucleic acids that contain the genetic instructions necessary for the development and functioning of all living organisms as well as some viruses.

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