The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Tetanus

Tetanus is a disease that affects the nervous system, characterized by painful tightening and spasms of the muscles. It is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which produces a neurotoxin when growing in the absence of oxygen. The spores of these bacteria are plentiful in the environment and affect humans when they get trapped in dirty wounds and release neurotoxins in the body.

Symptoms
At the onset of tetanus, patients usually develop headaches and spasms in the jaw muscles. This can lead to “lockjaw,” or a tightening of the jaw, until the patient can no longer open the mouth or swallow. As the disease progresses, spasms occur in other muscles, and patients sometimes experience muscle dysfunction that resembles seizures. Infections should be treated immediately; 1 out of every 10 tetanus cases results in death.

Treatment
There is no cure for tetanus but medication can be used to ease its symptoms. Antibiotics are prescribed to fight the tetanus bacteria and antitoxins can fight toxins that have not yet bonded to and affected nervous tissue. Sedatives and other medications can help regulate muscle activity and prevent spasms.

Prevention
Tetanus can easily be prevented by the DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) vaccine, which is typically administered to young children. Adults should receive tetanus boosters every 10 years and international travelers should get them before leaving their home country. Other precautions include cleaning wounds carefully to remove dirt and foreign objects that may carry tetanus spores.

Sources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/tetanus/DS00227/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs
http://www.who.int/immunization/topics/tetanus/en/index.html
http://www.who.int/immunization/topics/tetanus/en/index.html
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/tetanus/in-short-both.htm

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What do you know about infectious disease?

The 1918 influenza pandemic (the so-called “Spanish” flu) is estimated to have killed how many people worldwide?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The 1918 influenza pandemic is estimated to have killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide. Many of those deaths were due to the effects of pneumococcal pneumonia, a secondary complication of flu for which no antibiotics existed in 1918.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The 1918 influenza pandemic is estimated to have killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide. Many of those deaths were due to the effects of pneumococcal pneumonia, a secondary complication of flu for which no antibiotics existed in 1918.

  • Correct!

    The 1918 influenza pandemic is estimated to have killed between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide. Many of those deaths were due to the effects of pneumococcal pneumonia, a secondary complication of flu for which no antibiotics existed in 1918.

Infectious Disease Defined

Germ

In the context of microbiology, a microorganism that causes disease.

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