The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What do you know about infectious disease?

True or False: Growing evidence suggests that infections are behind many chronic diseases once thought to be caused by genetic, environmental, or lifestyle factors.

  • Correct!
    Growing evidence does suggest that infections are behind many chronic diseases once thought to be caused by genetic, environmental, or lifestyle factors, including peptic ulcers and cervical, liver, and gastric cancers.
  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Growing evidence does suggest that infections are behind many chronic diseases once thought to be caused by genetic, environmental, or lifestyle factors, including peptic ulcers and cervical, liver, and gastric cancers.

True or False: Our bodies contain at least 10 times more human cells than bacterial cells.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Our bodies contain at least 10 times more bacterial cells than human cells. 

  • Correct!

    Our bodies contain at least 10 times more bacterial cells than human cells. 

True or False: Scientists predict that rising average temperatures in some regions will change the transmission dynamics and geographic range of cholera, malaria, dengue fever, and tick-borne diseases.

  • Correct!

    Scientists predict that rising average temperatures in some regions—a result of climate change—will change the transmission dynamics and geographic range of cholera, malaria, dengue fever, and tick-borne diseases.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Scientists predict that rising average temperatures in some regions—a result of climate change—will change the transmission dynamics and geographic range of cholera, malaria, dengue fever, and tick-borne diseases.

Which of the following can be treated with antibiotics?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Strep throat is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics. The common cold and influenza are both viral infections, which do not respond to antibiotics. Antivirals may be prescribed instead.

  • Correct!

    Strep throat is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics. The common cold and influenza are both viral infections, which do not respond to antibiotics. Antivirals may be prescribed instead.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Strep throat is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics. The common cold and influenza are both viral infections, which do not respond to antibiotics. Antivirals may be prescribed instead.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Strep throat is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics. The common cold and influenza are both viral infections, which do not respond to antibiotics. Antivirals may be prescribed instead.

About how much of its fish and seafood does the United States import?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The United States imports more than 80 percent of its fish and seafood. About 20 percent of its fresh vegetables and 50 percent of its fresh fruits are imported. As wealthy nations demand such foods year-round, the increasing reliance on producers abroad means that food may be contaminated during harvesting, storage, processing, and transport—long before it reaches overseas markets.    

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The United States imports more than 80 percent of its fish and seafood. About 20 percent of its fresh vegetables and 50 percent of its fresh fruits are imported. As wealthy nations demand such foods year-round, the increasing reliance on producers abroad means that food may be contaminated during harvesting, storage, processing, and transport—long before it reaches overseas markets.    

  • Correct!

    The United States imports more than 80 percent of its fish and seafood. About 20 percent of its fresh vegetables and 50 percent of its fresh fruits are imported. As wealthy nations demand such foods year-round, the increasing reliance on producers abroad means that food may be contaminated during harvesting, storage, processing, and transport—long before it reaches overseas markets.    

True or False: If you have a cold or the flu, taking antibiotics will help treat the infection.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Antibiotics only work on bacterial infections, not viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. In fact, inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. 

  • Correct!

    Antibiotics only work on bacterial infections, not viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. In fact, inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. 

Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a virus?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterial infection. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viral infections.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterial infection. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viral infections.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterial infection. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viral infections.

  • Correct!

    Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterial infection. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viral infections.

True or False: The clearing and settlement of tropical rainforests has exposed woodcutters, farmers, and ecotourists to new vector-borne diseases.

  • Correct!

    The clearing and settlement of rainforests has exposed woodcutters, farmers, and ecotourists to new vector-borne diseases.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The clearing and settlement of tropical rainforests has exposed woodcutters, farmers, and ecotourists to new vector-borne diseases.

Which of the following diseases kills more children worldwide than any other infectious disease?

  • Correct!

    Lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia) kill more children worldwide than any other infectious disease. Together these diseases are the five leading causes of infectious disease worldwide, accounting for nearly one-fifth of all deaths.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia) kill more children worldwide than any other infectious disease. Together these diseases are the five leading causes of infectious disease worldwide, accounting for nearly one-fifth of all deaths.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia) kill more children worldwide than any other infectious disease. Together these diseases are the five leading causes of infectious disease worldwide, accounting for nearly one-fifth of all deaths.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia) kill more children worldwide than any other infectious disease. Together these diseases are the five leading causes of infectious disease worldwide, accounting for nearly one-fifth of all deaths.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia) kill more children worldwide than any other infectious disease. Together these diseases are the five leading causes of infectious disease worldwide, accounting for nearly one-fifth of all deaths.

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