The National Academies

The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What do you know about infectious disease?

True or False: If you have a cold or the flu, taking antibiotics will help treat the infection.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Antibiotics only work on bacterial infections, not viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. In fact, inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. 

  • Correct!

    Antibiotics only work on bacterial infections, not viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. In fact, inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. 

Which reproduce the fastest:

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Viruses reproduce the fastest. Humans produce a new generation every 20 years or so; bacteria do it every 20 to 30 minutes, and viruses even faster.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Viruses reproduce the fastest. Humans produce a new generation every 20 years or so; bacteria do it every 20 to 30 minutes, and viruses even faster.

  • Correct!

    Viruses reproduce the fastest. Humans produce a new generation every 20 years or so; bacteria do it every 20 to 30 minutes, and viruses even faster.

Which of the following is a bacterial infection?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Strep throat is a bacterial infection. Hookworm is caused by a parasite and chickenpox and influenza are both caused by viruses.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Strep throat is a bacterial infection. Hookworm is caused by a parasite and chickenpox and influenza are both caused by viruses.

  • Correct!

    Strep throat is a bacterial infection. Hookworm is caused by a parasite and chickenpox and influenza are both caused by viruses.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Strep throat is a bacterial infection. Hookworm is caused by a parasite and chickenpox and influenza are both caused by viruses.

True or False: Scientists believe that hot weather may speed up both the breeding cycle of mosquitoes and replication of the virus in insects’ guts.

  • Correct!

    Scientists believe that hot weather may speed up both the breeding cycle of mosquitoes and replication of the virus in insects’ guts.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Scientists believe that hot weather may speed up both the breeding cycle of mosquitoes and replication of the virus in insects’ guts.

About how often is someone in the world newly infected with tuberculosis (TB)?

  • Correct!

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

Which of these viral diseases has the most antiviral drugs available to treat it?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Today there are more antiviral drugs available for HIV than for any other viral disease, transforming an infection that was once considered a death sentence into a manageable chronic condition.

  • Correct!

    Today there are more antiviral drugs available for HIV than for any other viral disease, transforming an infection that was once considered a death sentence into a manageable chronic condition.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Today there are more antiviral drugs available for HIV than for any other viral disease, transforming an infection that was once considered a death sentence into a manageable chronic condition.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Today there are more antiviral drugs available for HIV than for any other viral disease, transforming an infection that was once considered a death sentence into a manageable chronic condition.

Which of the following is NOT a vector-borne disease?

  • Correct!

    Influenza is not a vector-borne disease, meaning it is not transmitted to humans indirectly via an insect, an arthropod, or another animal. Malaria and yellow fever are transmitted by mosquitoes. Lyme disease is transmitted by deer ticks.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Influenza is not a vector-borne disease, meaning it is not transmitted to humans indirectly via an insect, an arthropod, or another animal. Malaria and yellow fever are transmitted by mosquitoes. Lyme disease is transmitted by deer ticks.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Influenza is not a vector-borne disease, meaning it is not transmitted to humans indirectly via an insect, an arthropod, or another animal. Malaria and yellow fever are transmitted by mosquitoes. Lyme disease is transmitted by deer ticks.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Influenza is not a vector-borne disease, meaning it is not transmitted to humans indirectly via an insect, an arthropod, or another animal. Malaria and yellow fever are transmitted by mosquitoes. Lyme disease is transmitted by deer ticks.

If you have strep throat, which of the following forms of medication can be used to effectively treat the infection?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Because strep throat is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes, it is treatable with antibiotics but not antivirals. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent strep throat.

  • Correct!

    Because strep throat is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes, it is treatable with antibiotics but not antivirals. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent strep throat.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Because strep throat is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes, it is treatable with antibiotics but not antivirals. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent strep throat.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Because strep throat is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes, it is treatable with antibiotics but not antivirals. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent strep throat.

About how much of its fish and seafood does the United States import?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The United States imports more than 80 percent of its fish and seafood. About 20 percent of its fresh vegetables and 50 percent of its fresh fruits are imported. As wealthy nations demand such foods year-round, the increasing reliance on producers abroad means that food may be contaminated during harvesting, storage, processing, and transport—long before it reaches overseas markets.    

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The United States imports more than 80 percent of its fish and seafood. About 20 percent of its fresh vegetables and 50 percent of its fresh fruits are imported. As wealthy nations demand such foods year-round, the increasing reliance on producers abroad means that food may be contaminated during harvesting, storage, processing, and transport—long before it reaches overseas markets.    

  • Correct!

    The United States imports more than 80 percent of its fish and seafood. About 20 percent of its fresh vegetables and 50 percent of its fresh fruits are imported. As wealthy nations demand such foods year-round, the increasing reliance on producers abroad means that food may be contaminated during harvesting, storage, processing, and transport—long before it reaches overseas markets.    

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Infectious Disease Defined

Anemia

A condition in which there is a deficit in the number of healthy red blood cells in the blood, resulting in fatigue and feelings of weakness.

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