The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

The National Academies

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What do you know about infectious disease?

For each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, about how many children die from the infection in developing countries?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Life-saving vaccines and medications aren’t distributed equitably around the world; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Life-saving vaccines and medications aren’t distributed equitably around the world; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Life-saving vaccines and medications aren’t distributed equitably around the world; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.

  • Correct!

    Life-saving vaccines and medications aren’t distributed equitably around the world; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.

Where do microbes live?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice. 

  • Correct!

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice.

True or False: Scientists predict that rising average temperatures in some regions will change the transmission dynamics and geographic range of cholera, malaria, dengue fever, and tick-borne diseases.

  • Correct!

    Scientists predict that rising average temperatures in some regions—a result of climate change—will change the transmission dynamics and geographic range of cholera, malaria, dengue fever, and tick-borne diseases.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Scientists predict that rising average temperatures in some regions—a result of climate change—will change the transmission dynamics and geographic range of cholera, malaria, dengue fever, and tick-borne diseases.

Which deadly pathogen cannot be found naturally in the wild:

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Smallpox cannot be found naturally in the wild. Smallpox was officially declared eradicated from the globe in 1980, after an 11-year WHO vaccination campaign—the first human disease to be eliminated as a naturally spread contagion. Today, the virus remains only in laboratory stockpiles.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Smallpox cannot be found naturally in the wild. Smallpox was officially declared eradicated from the globe in 1980, after an 11-year WHO vaccination campaign—the first human disease to be eliminated as a naturally spread contagion. Today, the virus remains only in laboratory stockpiles.

  • Correct!

    Smallpox cannot be found naturally in the wild. Smallpox was officially declared eradicated from the globe in 1980, after an 11-year WHO vaccination campaign—the first human disease to be eliminated as a naturally spread contagion. Today, the virus remains only in laboratory stockpiles.

Which are examples of ways that pathogens (disease-causing microbes) can spread?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

  • Correct!

    All are examples of ways that pathogens can spread. Coughing is an example of airborne droplet transmission; eating undercooked pork is an example of common vehicle transmission; a flea bite is an example of vector transmission; and breathing contaminated dust particles is an example of airborne transmission.

What fraction of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    About one quarter of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease. More than two-thirds of the deaths in children under the age of five are caused by infectious disease.

  • Correct!

    About one quarter of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease. More than two-thirds of the deaths in children under the age of five are caused by infectious disease.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    About one quarter of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious disease. More than two-thirds of the deaths in children under the age of five are caused by infectious disease.

How many people in the world do not have access to an adequate water supply?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Worldwide, 884 million people do not have access to an adequate water supply, and about three times that number lack basic sanitation services. An estimated 2 million deaths a year can be attributed to unsafe water supplies.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Worldwide, 884 million people do not have access to an adequate water supply, and about three times that number lack basic sanitation services. An estimated 2 million deaths a year can be attributed to unsafe water supplies.

  • Correct!

    Worldwide, 884 million people do not have access to an adequate water supply, and about three times that number lack basic sanitation services. An estimated 2 million deaths a year can be attributed to unsafe water supplies.

True or False: Infection with a pathogen (a disease-causing microbe) does not necessarily lead to disease.

  • Correct!

    Infection occurs when viruses, bacteria, or other microbes enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease follows when the cells in your body are damaged as a result of infection, and signs and symptoms of an illness appear.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Infection occurs when viruses, bacteria, or other microbes enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease follows when the cells in your body are damaged as a result of infection, and signs and symptoms of an illness appear.

Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a virus?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterial infection. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viral infections.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterial infection. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viral infections.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterial infection. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viral infections.

  • Correct!

    Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterial infection. Chicken pox, the common cold, and influenza are all caused by viral infections.

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Disease Watchlist

Infectious Disease Defined

Species

One of the most basic units of biological classification, ranking just below the genus and comprising individuals or populations capable of interbreeding.

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