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The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Energy

What You Need To Know About Energy

The Cost of Energy

Energy use can carry a hefty price tag—and not just in money. The cost to our environment, to national security, and to the prospect of future sustainability is sometimes hard to calculate in dollar terms, but nonetheless very real in practical terms. What factors should we consider as we make decisions about energy options for the future?

Environmental Impact

Environmental Impact

Compared to the period 1986–2005, average global temperatures will likely rise—between 0.3°C and 1.7°C in the low estimate and 2.6°C to 4.8°C in the high estimate—during the next 100 years, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 

Our understanding of the world’s climate and how it has varied over time is advancing rapidly as scientists acquire more and more data and employ new instruments and methods for their analysis.

More about environmental impact



At present, about 24% of our oil supplies come from foreign sources, as do many other vital resources. But expanding the domestic supply has recently reduced net petroleum imports. And the United States will soon become a net exporter of natural gas.

Despite these developments, many planners argue that dramatic anticipated growth in worldwide energy demand, coupled with volatility in global markets and the interconnectedness of national economies threatens the prospect of U.S. energy independence. 

More about security



We are using fossil fuels many times faster than they are formed, a situation that cannot continue indefinitely.

The total contribution of renewable sources to our energy supply is projected to remain small unless we take aggressive steps toward accelerating their development. What are the consequences of continuing to depend on fossil fuels for our energy?

More about sustainability

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Energy Hands-on

The Promise of Better Lighting

Energy savings through lighting technology

Energy Defined

Ocean Acidification

The process by which the hydronium ion concentration increases in the ocean, measured as decreasing pH. One source of ocean acidification is the dissolution of carbon dioxide, which forms carbonic acid with water and then dissociates into hydronium and bicarbonate. Lower pH impacts ocean life, including their soft and hard materials, and also human-built structures in the ocean, such as vessels.

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