The National Academies

The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Energy

What You Need To Know About Energy

What do you know about energy?

Refrigerators became 70% more efficient between 1972 and 2001, primarily due to regulation. What is a market response to increased efficiency of refrigerators?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Refrigerators are not likely to be used more or less hours in the day, but people are more likely to have more of them if they cost less to operate.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Refrigerators are not likely to be used more or less hours in the day, but people are more likely to have more of them if they cost less to operate.

  • Correct!

    Refrigerators are not likely to be used more or less hours in the day, but people are more likely to have more of them if they cost less to operate.

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, about how much have atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased?

  • Correct!

    CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has risen about 43% since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century-half of that since 1980

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has risen about 43% since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century-half of that since 1980

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has risen about 43% since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century-half of that since 1980

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has risen about 43% since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century-half of that since 1980

How are battery electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles different?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Battery electric vehicles have only a motor and battery, they recharge from the grid and their carbon emissions depend on the energy used to generate the electricity they use. Hybrid vehicles have both a gasoline engine and an electric motor, and use petroleum onboard when their batteries are exhausted. Some hybrid vehicles can charge from the grid and others cannot. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Battery electric vehicles have only a motor and battery, they recharge from the grid and their carbon emissions depend on the energy used to generate the electricity they use. Hybrid vehicles have both a gasoline engine and an electric motor, and use petroleum onboard when their batteries are exhausted. Some hybrid vehicles can charge from the grid and others cannot. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Battery electric vehicles have only a motor and battery, they recharge from the grid and their carbon emissions depend on the energy used to generate the electricity they use. Hybrid vehicles have both a gasoline engine and an electric motor, and use petroleum onboard when their batteries are exhausted. Some hybrid vehicles can charge from the grid and others cannot. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Battery electric vehicles have only a motor and battery, they recharge from the grid and their carbon emissions depend on the energy used to generate the electricity they use. Hybrid vehicles have both a gasoline engine and an electric motor, and use petroleum onboard when their batteries are exhausted. Some hybrid vehicles can charge from the grid and others cannot. 

  • Correct!

    Battery electric vehicles have only a motor and battery, they recharge from the grid and their carbon emissions depend on the energy used to generate the electricity they use. Hybrid vehicles have both a gasoline engine and an electric motor, and use petroleum onboard when their batteries are exhausted. Some hybrid vehicles can charge from the grid and others cannot. 

What technology was most responsible for increase in lighting efficiency from 45 Im/W in 2001 to 58 Im/W in 2010?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Increasing market share of compact fluorescents was primarily responsible for the increased lighting efficiency between 2001 and 2010.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Increasing market share of compact fluorescents was primarily responsible for the increased lighting efficiency between 2001 and 2010.

  • Correct!

    Increasing market share of compact fluorescents was primarily responsible for the increased lighting efficiency between 2001 and 2010.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Increasing market share of compact fluorescents was primarily responsible for the increased lighting efficiency between 2001 and 2010.

In 2014, of the four economic sectors, which used the most energy in the United States?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In 2014, the industrial sector represented 32% of U.S. energy use, while transportation was 28%. Residential and commercial were 22% and 19% respectively.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In 2014, the industrial sector represented 32% of U.S. energy use, while transportation was 28%. Residential and commercial were 22% and 19% respectively.

  • Correct!

    In 2014, the industrial sector represented 32% of U.S. energy use, while transportation was 28%. Residential and commercial were 22% and 19% respectively.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In 2014, the industrial sector represented 32% of U.S. energy use, while transportation was 28%. Residential and commercial were 22% and 19% respectively.

How efficient are ordinary commercial solar cell units?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    As of 2014, the very best experimental units could convert more than 40% of light energy to electricity; ordinary commercial units are in the range of 5% to 20%. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    As of 2014, the very best experimental units could convert more than 40% of light energy to electricity; ordinary commercial units are in the range of 5% to 20%. 

  • Correct!

    As of 2014, the very best experimental units could convert more than 40% of light energy to electricity; ordinary commercial units are in the range of 5% to 20%. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    As of 2014, the very best experimental units could convert more than 40% of light energy to electricity; ordinary commercial units are in the range of 5% to 20%. 

In 2014, how much of the world's CO2 is released by the United States?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The United States emits about 18% of the world’s greenhouse gases, behind only China, which accounts for approximately one-quarter of total global emissions. 

  • Correct!

    The United States emits about 18% of the world’s greenhouse gases, behind only China, which accounts for approximately one-quarter of total global emissions. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The United States emits about 18% of the world’s greenhouse gases, behind only China, which accounts for approximately one-quarter of total global emissions. 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The United States emits about 18% of the world’s greenhouse gases, behind only China, which accounts for approximately one-quarter of total global emissions. 

On average, which is most efficient in coverting heat into electic power?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    On average, a typical coal-burning power plant in 2013 was about 33% efficient in converting heat energy into electrical power. A gas-fired plant was about 42% efficient. And in natural gas combined-cycle power plants—in which waste heat from a natural gas turbine is used to power a steam turbine—generation may be as much as 60% efficient.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    On average, a typical coal-burning power plant in 2013 was about 33% efficient in converting heat energy into electrical power. A gas-fired plant was about 42% efficient. And in natural gas combined-cycle power plants—in which waste heat from a natural gas turbine is used to power a steam turbine—generation may be as much as 60% efficient.

  • Correct!

    On average, a typical coal-burning power plant in 2013 was about 33% efficient in converting heat energy into electrical power. A gas-fired plant was about 42% efficient. And in natural gas combined-cycle power plants—in which waste heat from a natural gas turbine is used to power a steam turbine—generation may be as much as 60% efficient.

How many gallons of water are required to hydraulically fracture a well, on average in the U.S.?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The national average is around 1.5 million gallons per well , according to the EPA.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The national average is around 1.5 million gallons per well , according to the EPA.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The national average is around 1.5 million gallons per well , according to the EPA.

  • Correct!

    The national average is around 1.5 million gallons per well , according to the EPA.

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